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In Cooperation With The Robert F. Hobbs Foundation

by Staff Archivists, The Daily Republican Newspaper

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Daily Republican Electronic Newsboy ImageWASHINGTON -- The editorial policy of The Daily Republican Newspaper aims to publish the best little paper in the world. We pledge to provide the news, op-ed, and politics readers need to be well informed citizens of this nation.
    Our duty is to the truth. We pledge to seek and report the truth with honesty, accuracy, fairness and courage. By seeking truth and sharing understanding, we will strive for the improvement of society.
    We will show no favoritism. Our newsroom will operate free of influence from public and private institutions, political officials and advertisers. We hold that journalistic excellence is the soundest foundation for our success and that the editorial integrity of Daily Republican Newspaper is its most precious asset.
    For this, we will be vigilant among ourselves and open with our readers. We will deal with people fairly and compassionately. We will remain free of associations or activities that might compromise our integrity or damage our credibility. We will avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived. We will disclose those associations and activities we do undertake. Daily Republican Newspaper is its most precious asset.
    If the editorial mission and the commercial interests of The Daily Republican Newspaper conflict, editorial integrity will always come first. This principle applies to everything published or produced by The Daily Republican Newspaper, including the newspaper and its Web sites. Daily Republican Newspaper is its most precious asset.
    These principles must be guarded by not only our publisher and editor, but every member of our staff. As we go about our work, we will put the interests of our readers first.
    The Republican Party evolved in 1854, thirty years after the early Springfiled Republican Newspaper was established in Springfield, Massachusetts 1824. The founder was by Samuel Bowles. The newspaper pronounced for the early Republican faith as against that of the Federaists and was ready for progress in democracy.
     During the 1850's when the issue of slavery forced divisions within the existing Whig and Democratic-Republican parties. The Springfield Republican called for establishment of the Republican Party dedicated to states' rights and a restricted role of government in economic and social life.
    In February 1855 the Whig Party held a convention in Philadelphia to draft a national platform. The meeting was held in secret. Bowles was incensed and wrote stinging editorials calling for the creation of a new political party. In turn the New York Tribune and the Atlas of Boston supported Bowles. He had long denounced ther un-American secrecy and Klanlike domination of the Whig Party. Bowles declared "...the Whig Party is a usleless relic. Henceforth, political independenceis to be the guiding principle of the press."
    In 1856 te Republican Party held its first national convention in Philadelphia, the party nominated John C. Fremont for president, Abraham Lincoln was proposed as vice-president. Fremont lost, but he Republian Party accounted for 33% of the total vote cast.
    At the 1860 Republican National Convention, Abraham Lincoln became the Presidential nominee. The Republican platform specifically pledged not to extend slavery and called for enactment of free-homestead legislation, prompt establishment of a daily mail service, a transcontinental railroad and support of the protective tariff.
    Three Candidates opposed Lincoln: Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat), John Cabell Breckenridge (Southern Democrat) and John Bell (Constitutional Union Party). Lincoln won almost half a million votes more than Douglas, his closest rival, and he won the election garnering 39.8 percent of the popular vote. This election firmly established the Republicans who held onto the Presidency for 60 of the next 100 years.
     Shortly thereafter, the first shots of the Civil War were fired. The Lincoln Administration established the Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Internal Revenue and a national banking system.
    Lincoln passed the Homestead Act under the realization that settling the Frontier was important as well as the need for citizens to have a piece of land to call their own. This action also placated the former members of the Free Soil Party by offering public land grants. In his attempts to enhance education, Lincoln donated land for agricultural and technical colleges to states through the Land Grant College Act which in turn helped establish universities throughout the United States. Keeping in mind the significance of the Republican Party, Republicans worked to strike death to slavery. In 1863, Lincoln delivered the Emancipation Proclamation, and the Republican Congress passed the 13th Amendment outlawing slavery.
     Ensuing battle, resentment over the draft and taxes, and the failures of the military leadership delivered Lincoln and the Republicans into the 1864 campaign with scant hope for victory. Party leaders saw the opportunity to broaden the base of the party and adopted the name National Union Party. Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a "War" Democrat, was nominated as Lincoln's running mate. Significant military victories transpired before election day and contributed to Lincoln's overwhelming reelection.
    After Lincoln's assassination, the Republican Congress continued to push for legislation extending full protection of Civil Rights to blacks. The Radical Republicans, led by Sen. Charles Sumner and Rep. Thaddeus Stevens, fought President Johnson's Reconstruction policies.
    At length, relations between Johnson and Congress declined culminating in the impeachment of the President; Johnson was acquitted by a single vote.
     The defeat left the Democratic South - which had seceded from both the Union and Congress - in shambles.
    The Republicans, on the other hand, were soaring. Republicans utilized their majority to pass legislation to improve the quality of life for blacks throughout the Union. A Civil Rights Act was passed in 1866 acknowledging blacks as US citizens.
    This weakened the still largely Democratic South by denying states the power to restrict blacks from testifying in court or from owning their own property. In addition, the Republicans passed the 14th Amendment to the Constitution in 1868 which states, "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
     In recent times, historical revisionists try to explain the good will of the Republican Party toward blacks as a means of wrenching influence in the South away from the Democrats. The fact remains, however, that the issues that Republicans fought for were volatile and highly controversial. Sumner ended up in stitches, a war was fought and Lincoln died for these principles. Many Republicans risked life, limb and their careers to fight for what was right, and blacks eventually received the right to vote. After the war, blacks held local elected offices and played roles in state legislatures.
    In 1869, blacks finally entered Congress as members of the Republican Party. In fact, all black congressmen were Republicans until the first black Democrat was elected to Congress and entered in 1935.
     With the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868, the Republicans began a period of national dominance that lasted for more than 70 years. Between 1860 and 1932 the Democrats controlled the White House for only 16 years. Grant's administration was committed to sound money policies. In addition, the Department of Justice and the Weather Bureau were established.
     The Republican Congress boldly moved forward by passing the 15th Amendment which guarantees voting rights to all citizens regardless of race, creed or previous condition of servitude. Two years later, in an unprecedented move, the Republican Congress focussed its attentions on women's issues. They authorized equal pay for equal work performed by women employed by federal agencies.
     A split among the Republicans occurred. The more moderate elements, opposed to the harshness of the Radical Republicans on the Reconstruction issue and some alleged scandals of the administration, broke away and created the Liberal Republican Party. They, along with a faction of the Democratic Party, nominated Horace Greeley for President. Despite this opposition, Grant was reelected by a substantial margin. A continuation of some scandals, along with the panic of 1873, effected the Republican loss of control in Congress in 1874.
    The Republicans emerged from that election with a new party symbol, the elephant, after it first appeared in a newspaper cartoon by Thomas Nast. Nast was a famous illustrator and cartoonist who worked for The New Yorker. In 1874, rumors of a third-term run by Grant coincided with hearsay that animals had escaped from the New York City Zoo. Nast selected the elephant mascot to depict the Republican Party because, he said " Elephants are resolute, clever and tranquil when calm but unmanageable when alarmed."
    The Republican Party's anti-slavery orientation was bound to conflict with Southern states' slave-driven pre-civil war economy. In fact, the Republican Part victory of Herbert C. Hoover in 1928 marked the only time since the end of Reconstruction that the Republicns carried states of the Old Confederay, chiefly because the Demnocratic Party candidate Alfred E. Smith was a Catholic.
    President Hoover wanted to institute economic reforms to halt and emergant and severe economic slump in the last few months of his term. However, President Hoover hesitated to institute changes without the cooperation and approval of his successor, FDR. And Roosevelt refused to go along with and accept responsibility before assuming power officially.
    All in all, the Republican Party was soon blamed by the Democrats for the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the economic depression that soon hit the nation's economy. The Democrats, under Franklin D. Roosevelt, were swept into office in 1932 under a Democrat's promise of a comprehensive News Deal plan, though what FDR had in mind was basically a "bigger government" and higher taxes. One of FDR's "solutions" was to cover everyone the Townsend "Old Age Revolving Pension." Under the plan, as economists quickly pointed out, the federal treasury would be drained because, with around 10 million people eligible for the pension, the cost would amount to more than $24 billion annually. This was nearly half the entire national income.
     FDR turned to British socialist John Maynard Keynes in 1934 for an economic miracle, a "Second New Deal". What Keynes came up with was for the U.S. government to deliberately unbalance its national budget by cutting taxes and increasing expenditures in hopes of stimulating consumption and investment. This would later be seen for what it was, "Spend, spend, spend and elect, elect, elect until doomsday!"
    Roosevelt followed the script. By 1938 he was urging Congress to pass a %38 billion Public Works bill, followed by acerage limitations for the growing of cotton, wheat,and tobacco.He then authroized a Commodity Credit Corp. that would lend money to farmers on their surplus crops [held as loan collateral] to be stored in federal warehouses. When prices rose farmers could repay the loans and reclaim their produce. Next came the Fair Labor Standards Act and established a national minimum wage. Many areas of of American life formerly left unregulated became, through his meddling forever subject to federal authority and regulation.
    The Republican form of government of this nation was built upon the American system of constitutional and legal order -- the principle that the individual is the master and the government his servant. This what the United States presented the world when the 19th Century opened. In the United States many circumstances have prevented the rise of political party authentically dedicated to to the conservative tradition espoused by Samuel Bowles' editorials in the Springfield Republican.
    In our own time, the realignment may well become a reality. The challenge of our times is to fulfill the moral imperative of responsible leadership in the world, as well as of the individual in the nation. Republican loss of control in Congress in 1874.
    The historic work, Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville chronicled the impact that newpapers like the Republican had in shaping America's unique political character. Daily Republican Newspaper is its most precious asset.
    The antecedent Springfield Republican's original purpose was chiefly the analysis and public discussion of general intelligence as a safeguard to the rights and liberties of the people through a general diffusion of political information and by discussing the principles of government. Today's Daily Republican News Service is its modern descendant and exemplar. Republican loss of control in Congress in 1874.
    Samuel Bowles was a very good friend of Emily Dickinson and the second in his family to edit the Springfield Republican newspaper. This number, published as the nineteenth number after the establishment of the Daily Republican, was printed when Bowles was only 18 years old and Emily not yet 14. Samuel Bowles (the 1st) established the Springfield Republican as a weekly in 1824; Samuel Bowles (2nd) was 17 years old when he started employment with the newspaper in 1843 running errands and writing local news items. He started lobbying his father and other editors for a daily newspaper and finally got permission to begin the Daily when he guaranteed that most of the extra labor would be his. The Daily started without a single subscriber on or about March 27, 1844. The number printed must have been extremely small for these early issues and growth slow; in April, 1846 it was announced that the Daily Republican was to be a permanent newspaper. It had many ads, some international news, national and local and a partial column listing other newspaper opinions of the new venture. One of the significant ads is for a Springfield concert of the famous Hutchinson Family singers. Republican loss of control in Congress in 1874.
    Federalism was making its last-stand in back-country districts. The Springfield Republican endorsed John Quincy Adams(R) for president and achieved modest success. By 1846, with the coming of the electronic telegraph, it took on a new life and became distinguished in its literary quality, fiction serials, and history departments as well as its editorial policy. Republican loss of control in Congress in 1874.
    In 1856, editor Horace Greeley, wrote in the Springfield Republican 'It is the best and ablest country journal ever published on the continent.' One of the outstanding features of the Republican was its concise writing and condensation. Republican loss of control in Congress in 1874.

Although the Daily Republican helped to create the new Comnservative conscience of the Republican Party it has always remained an independent force in political thought.
    The historic Springfield Republican eventually was re-cast as a weekly known as the Fresno Republican on the California wild and rugged frontier in February 1877. Its original purposes were renewed as it played a key role in establishing the California Republican Party. In July 1892 it bcame a daily and changed its name to the Fresno Morning Republican and remained independent until November 1926 when it was sold.
    In 1877 it had begun with a hard-hitting series of editorials promoting public accountability for soaring taxes and increasing Federalism and soaring National Debt. At that time the national debt was then only a paltry $3,352,380,410.
    That debt mostly due to the destructive economic effects on productivity and rampant inflation resulting from the cumulative
    Since the year 1887 the taxpayers of the United States have attempted to reform Congress' wayward tax and spend habits.
    By 1996 the National Debt exceeds $5.1 trillion. There is good reason to continue and to perpetuate a historic Republican newspaper publisher's vision as the world moves cautiously into another new world at the millennium and beyond.
    By 1996 the William Clinton presidency with the cooperation of a Democrat Congress pushed the Nation head-long into another implacable period of populist tax & spend fiscal irresponsibility.

Today's national Daily Republican newspaper traces its conservative editorial policy originally established by Samuel Bowles as based on the civil economics philosophy of Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679 [Richard Hofstadter, The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It, pp.3,5,16,356. Random House, New York, 1948.] Daily Republican Newspaper is its most precious asset.
    In another historical sidebar, the early history of California was written by ancestors of the Republican newspapers' owners& publishers.

Orrin E. Smith was a member of Samuel Brannan's Early California pioneers. These men were members of the Mormon group from Illinois who were the first English speaking residents of Yerba Buena (San Francisco).

The party arrived in San Francisco Bay aboard the ship Brooklyn on July 31th in the year 1846. The ship had carried the pioneers all the way from New York harbor, a journey of 24,000 miles. The site of the landing was near what is now the Hyde Street Pier close to an old Mexican Fort.
    Brannan brought with the pioneer party many advanced technological inventions never seen in early California. One if these advances was the portable Franklin printing press.
    Brannan intended to establish the first English newspaper on the Pacific Coast. Samuel Brannan, with the assistance of Orrin Smith operated the press in a second-story loft & grist mill on Clay Street in early San Francisco. They opened a printing business, and began writing and publishing the newspaper called California Star.
    The California Star newspaper was sold on street corners in what is now San Francisco and was dispatched by ship in the earliest mail to the Eastern Seaboard and to the British Isles. Smith & Brannan told readers that California was a "haven of opportunity".
    After the discovery of gold in 1849 California Star became the voice of San Francisco and of the Pacific Coast. Largely through breaking the news of the gold strike to the world the California Star gained prominence throughout a world eager to learn.
    The gold strike caused a sudden population growth and wild prosperity in California. The size of the population increased twelve-fold in a single year.The publishers of the California Star soon had a thriving economic enterprise, expanding to meet the needs of the growing community. [Chas. Dobie, San Francisco: A Pageant, pp.95-109. Appleton-Century Co., London, 1933.]
    The early history of the Republican newspaper is tied up with the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln(R) 1861-1865. Lincoln was the founder of the modern Republican Party in America. The owners of the national Daily Republican newspaper are paternal descendants of the Thomas Hobbes(English philosopher) family, and maternal descendants of the Nancy Hanks Lincoln's mother)and maternal descendants of the Orrin E. Smith (California pioneer of 1846).
    The historic Fresno weekly Republican newspaper was sold by newsboys on the corner of Fresno Street and Van Ness Avenue, at five cents per copy. One of the Fresno Republican news boys, Niels Thomsen has chronicled that early experience in Fresno together with his later voyages around the world prior to WWII and his heroic expolits in defense of this nation. His latest work Voyage of the Forest Dream is an exciting glimpse.
    The subsequent news organization known as the Fresno morning Republican newspaper continued to operate successfully until it was closed in the 1932 when the liberal publisher of the Sacramento Bee C.K. McClatchy, purchased the Fresno Morning Republican subscriber lists and began a new organization called the Freno Bee newspaper.
    The historic archives of the Fresno Morning Republican are still available on microfilm and may be viewed at the California History section of the Fresno County Main Library and at the Henry Madden Library photo-micrography services at Fresno State University, Main Campus. The original plates of the newspaper are preserved by the Fresno County Historical Society.
    The modern incarnation of the Springfield, Mass. daily Republican newspaper was reorganized in 1981 and founded on graphical interface engineering. It has technically evolved since them, and now uses powerful JAVA Scriptinf, SHOCKWAVE & CGI programming with the latest versions of Internet and World Wide Web browsers like Netscape, Microsoft Internet Explorer, AOL, and COMPUSERVE with multi-media plugins for video, graphics and streaming audio.
    The national Daily Republican newspaper has been featured on C-SPAN for the newspaper's public affairs service, news, and political opinion for the past three years. See the C-SPAN Graphic on the Coverpage and Headline Page. And, The Daily Republican onLine newspaper has also received recognition in the Hall of Fame, C-Site permanent award. The Daily Republican is the 1995 recipient of the Gold Medal In Journalism for Best News Publication on the Internet! The historic Atlantic Monthly Magazine selected the Daily Republican as its political information site in 1996.
    Two of Fresno's early Republican Party pioneers were physician, Chester H. Rowell, from Denver and school teacher, Albert Lincoln Hobbs from Springfield and Boston, Mass. Hobbs was the descendant of 16th Century English philosopher Thomas Hobbes. Rowell would be the founder and publisher of The Fresno Republican weekly newspaper. Albert Lincoln Hobbs would be the founder of a fruit packing and shipping company and the Chairman of the Fresno County Central Committee and of the California Republican Party.
    In 1854 the modern Republican Party appeared in American politics as a transformation of the Whig Party. The first Republican president was Abraham Lincoln(R) 1861-1865.
    In 1858 the town of Fresno was founded on only 50 residents. By 1876 Fresno had more than 3,000 itinerants and property owners. Dr. Chester Rowell arrived in that year and started the Republican newspaper partly in response to the civil strife he witnessed upon arrival. Fresno was by then a liberal, brawling, rowdy, Libertine, and wide-open frontier town of bawdy houses, saloons, cattle men, Sequoia logging mill workers, gold miners, gamblers, and railroad speculators.
    Town government was ineffective, its officials were naive, illiterate, and lacked any interest in maintaining law and order. Graft, bribery, and corruption controlled City Hall. Citizens were apathetic and were even afraid to be on Fresno City streets after dark.
    However, the powerful influence of the ideas and editorials published in the Republican newspaper appealed to Fresnans to establish peace and insure the safety of its people and their property in order to establish a social and economic foundation for growth and property.
    Dr. Rowell's brother was a congressman in Washington whose son was Dr. Rowell's namesake. The younger Chester H. Rowell served as a Committee Clerk in Congress for his father after graduating the University of Michigan. he then took two years of post graduate studies at the University of Berlin before teaching college Latin, German, and French, in Baxter, Kansas.
    On October 12, 1885, the Fresno City Township was incorporated. In 1895 young Rowell was hired by C. L. McLane, Fresno City School Superintendent for a teaching position at the 115 student, Fresno High School. Young Rowell was among its first five teachers.
    Three years later, the younger Chester Rowell accepted the job as Editor of the Republican from his Uncle Chester Rowell. The name on the masthead was soon modified as the Fresno Morning Republican . The younger Rowell soon became well-known throughout the Nation as a crusading young journalist-editor attempting to clean-up Fresno's image of political graft and crime. He went after a change in the General Law for Cities of the Fifth Class.
    Fresno operated without a Mayor under that law. Town government had been weak and run by five trustees. The Fresno Morning Republican ampaigned for election of literate community leaders with commitment to limited government clean streets and a responsible business community.
     A. Lincoln Hobbs, President and Manager of the successful corporation, Hobbs Parson's Company, was an international fruit shipper, President of the Fresno Chamber of Commerce, an educator, and was impressed with Rowell's editorials in the Fresno Morning Republican and his community leadership in getting a new Charter for Fresno City.
    Hobbs nominated Chester Rowell for Mayor of Fresno City. Rowell did not seriously accept the nomination but sought changes in the form of City government from behind the Editor desk. In 1902, Fresno voters approved the new City Charter, and elected their first mayor, Mr. L.O. Stephens.
    Chester Rowell and A. Lincoln Hobbs became Charter Founders in 1890 of the Progressive Republican Lincoln Roosevelt League in California. During the 1890s both major parties were hurt by the rise of agrarian protest, but infighting proved most divisive among the Democrats; their collapse at the polls followed in 1896. Beginning in that year, increased voter strength made the Republicans the majority party in the Unites States for the next 25 years.
    Party factionalism continued: Beginning in the 1890s Hobbs and Rowell led a group of Republicans known as the Progressives sought to balance the party's commitment to the industrial elite with the use of federal power to correct some of the worst excesses of the Southern Pacific Railroad monopoly and similar corporation trusts that dominated the political economy of California.
    The former Republican president, Theodore Roosevelt, who had promoted some progressive measures while in office, later became the presidential candidate of a third party, the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party after the tumult of the Chicago Republican Party Convention.
    Hobbs invited Theodore Roosevelt to Fresno and drove the automobile carrying the former president in a Van Ness Avenue Bull-Moose Party rally and Parade.
    Hobbs and Rowell were the sponsors of the original state campaign for obtaining the direct primary in California under which the Bull Moose Party became qualified.
    Following the California State Legislature's 1907 Session, Rowell and other Progressive Republicans organized themselves into the Lincoln-Roosevelt League to wrest control of their party away from the Southern Pacific. In their original outline of goals, the League encouraged the ensuing legislature to enact "a primary election law that shall afford the party voter a direct voice in the selection of party candidates." [The Fresno Republican, 13 March 1907.]
    One of the major unifying aspects of the League was its support of the direct primary. The League also supported the peoples' right to directly elect their United States Senators and urged passage of more stringent laws prohibiting delegates from "trading" their votes at conventions.
    Rowell and Hobbs also played a key role in the election of Hiram Johnson(R) to the Office of California Governor in 1910. During the Johnson Administration, the political power of the Southern Pacific Railroad "octopus" was broken.
    The Fresno businessmen, Hobbs and Fresno Morning Republican Editor and Publisher, Rowell developed the maxim Vote for the Man - Not the Party! and later lived up to that charge in gaining support for third party candidate Theodore Roosevelt in California.
    The Republican Party was split between former President Theodore Roosevelt(R) and candidate William Howard Taft(R) after the Chicago Republican Party Convention. Presidential candidate William Howard Taft(R) was elected in 1909.
    n time, Roosevelt proved right, but the Republican Party had sustained party disunity which led to California Governor Hiram Johnson (R) and President Taft's defeat in 1912, to Woodrow Wilson(D).
    Soon after California Governor Hiram Johnson's was also defeated. These events led to Chester Rowell divesting himself of his financial interest in the Fresno Morning Republican and being appointed by President Wilson to the U.S. Shipping Board. For many years after leaving Fresno he was the Editor of the San Francisco Chronicle while serving on the Board of Regents of the University of California. He received many honors in the fields of economics, politics, peace, law, science, and sociology.
    The Democrats controlled the presidency from then until 1920, when the voters, seeking a return to normalcy after World War I, brought the Republicans back to power under Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge.The Republican Party remained dominant throughout the 1920s, its strength unaffected even by another progressive defection in 1924.
    Despite opposition from agricultural and progressive Republicans, it continued to foster industrial economic values in a time of extraordinary prosperity. Herbert Hoover, first as secretary of commerce, then as president from 1929 to 1933, symbolized Republican commitment to unbounded national prosperity rooted in massive industrial expansion.
    The Great Depression began during Hoover's administration. The depression severely damaged America's fundamental belief in the dream of unlimited growth and prosperity. Trust in the Republican party was damaged. The economic collapse and extraordinary high unemployment that followed the stock-market collapse in 1929 made economic history. The slow and Stoic response of President, Hoover's administration was too little, too late.
    The Democrat Party was successful in capturing the presidency by demoting economics issues. However, it was not successful in resolving the underlying employment problems.
    Finally, the New Deal coalition, headed first by Franklin D. Roosevelt and later by Harry S. Truman, was boosted by a war economy that permitted political power of the Democrat Party to remain in control of the White House for a generation. During that time the Republican Party would lose five presidential elections in a row.
    Chester Rowell died at the age of 80,closely following the presidential election of Harry Truman(D) in 1948.
Editorial Mission Statement:
    In this newspaper, the separation of news from the editorial is intended to serve the reader, who is entitled to the facts in the news and to opinions in the editorials. Nothing in these functions is intended to eliminate from the news honest, in-depth reporting, or analysis or commentary when plainly depicted as such.
    At this newspaper we never expected history to oblige our corporate editorial policies and purposes so well. Yet, in response to publication of the historic Republican newspaper columns and opinion pieces, the ship of state did more than correct its course in the early 20th Century. It reversed engines, and Communism has now self-destructed, and the U.S. emerged unchallenged as the world's sole remaining political and economic power.
    The pre-eminent role played by the Republican newspaper in all this has been re-emphasized in a speech by our Economics Editor and Acting Manager & Publisher, Dr. Howard Hobbs in 1989 on this newspaper's One Hundred Fifty-Seventh Year Anniversary Board Meeting. He said:

    'The national Daily Republican newspaper, in itself, is the most consequential statement of conservative opinion ever made. For five generations we have been in the forefront of the journalism movement that has transformed public policy in California and the Nation. It has even changed the ideas, the politics, and finally the economic policies of most of the important international states and nations the world has known. This was necessary to winning the most important war ever waged by any newspaper anywhere. History has not, of course, ended even if the historic No. 10 Web Press is now still and silent.

        The Daily Republican continues in Cyberspace with the Internet Web Press newspaper and its well chosen words now written on the very air itself, for the entire world to read!'

Howard Hobbs first became known around the nation through a June 1942 AP news photo of him, as a child on the sidelines, actively participating in a Market Street military parade and saluting the American Flag. The story and photo appeared in a number of national daily newspapers. [This AP photo caption read that Howard (on right) and his friend were attracting the attention of the crowd on Market Street as they saluted every American Flag that passed by, even small ones on automobiles. -Chatnooga Free Press.]

A 20th Century descendant of 16th Century English political economist Thomas Hobbes, and nephew of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Mark Twain, Howard is also linked to early Fresno Morning Republican newspaper co-founders, Dr. Chester Rowell and First Presbyterian Church founder, A. Lincoln Hobbs, Fresno Hobbs-Parsons Co. shipping company founder, of Massachusetts and Fresno.

Howard shown here in a 1955 combat Fleet Marine Force photo, was a 1953 Fresno High School grad who enlisted in the Marines and became the youngest Company Sgt. serving in Fleet Marine Force units in the Western Pacific, Japan and China during the Cold War era. Howard's recent column Final Tribute To A Cold War Hero has been made a part of the National Archives and is on display at the Ronald W. Reagan Presidential Museum web site. Hobbs won the first California Ford Fellow post in the 1958 California Legislature, while completing his bachelor's degree at Fresno State in only three years.
    Under his Ford Foundation fellowship, Hobbs researched and wrote the California Legistature's Fresno Housing Study in 1959. That was an analytical research report on the South-Angus Street Redevelopment Project in Fresno, CA.
    The Fresno Housing Authority headed up by Fresno State College Social Science professor, Karl Leonard Falk, embarked upon large-scale downtwon urban renewal that displaced several hundred Fresno small businesses and hundreds of downtown poor minority residents in order to obtain federal block-grant funds from Washington D.C. for the deconstruction of Fresno's Main Street on Futon and to pave the way for what has beome a sterile anti-business government reservation.
    Professor Falk's redevelopment fallacy of a centrally planned government mall. In its wake came the systematic destruction of the historic Fresno County Courthouse, the Carnegie Library, theaters, restaurnts, stores, and professional offices, 40 blocks of private homes, the closing off Fuilton Street, the main access to downtwon businesses, and making the remaining access streets one-way further restricting access to the downtown area by car.

As the Ford Fellow he met and worked with vice-president Richard Nixon, California Governor Goodwin Knight, and U.S. senator William F. Knowland. Hobbs earned the bachelor's degree in economics & journalism at Fresno State in 1959 and a J.D. Doctorate of Law at the William Blackstone School of Law in Chicago graduating with honors in 1970. He earned the Ph.D. in Psychology in 1975 from the Walden Institute in Minneapolis. Hobbs holds a 1981 economics C/I doctorate from University of Southern California. He was the chief economist at the Washington D.C. based Economics Institute until 1992. Hobbs is the in-house Corporate Counsel for WebPortal Inc. in Palo Alto, and serves as Dean of th American Law Review, and Editor of Valley Press pubications including the Bulldog Newspaper at Fresno State, The Clovis Free Press, TheYosemite Valley News, Tower District News, The Fresno Republican, The California Star, and the national edition of The Daily Republican.

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World Wide Web Mission Statement:

'We are compassionate of heart and conservative of mind. Established in Springfield, Mass., in 1824, the Daily Republican Interactive is now comemorating its 174th Anniversary. We publish a fearless, National print and electronic daily newspaper, on-line via the Internet WWW serving readers across the Nation and in 140 countries.
    The Daily Republican sponsors original research on government policy, the American economy, and American politics. Daily Republican research aims to preserve and to strengthen republican foundations of a free societyŚlimited government, competitive private enterprise, vital cultural and political institutions, and vigilant defenseŚthrough rigorous inquiry, debate, and clear writing.'

Web User Report Contains audited report showing readership on the date-bar of the Front Page.

[Bibliographic Primary Sources: Victor Bogart, "Chester Rowell and the Lincoln-Roosevelt League," (Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Berkeley, CA., 1962), 54; The Story of an Independent newspaper: One Hundred Years of the Springfield Republican 1824-1924, by Richard Hooker, The MacMillan Co. New York, 1924; Solomon B. Griffin's People and Politics;Allan Nevins, The Evening Post, A Century of Journalism; and American Political History by Alexander Johnston & James Albert Woodburn; Irving Babbit's Democracy & Leadership, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1924; The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2d ed., pp. 237, 1876, Columbia University Press, New York, 1956; Edwin M. Eaton's Vintage Fresno: Pictorial Recollections of a Western City, pp.6-9. The Huntington Press, Fresno, California, 1965; Verne E. Edwards' Journalism in a Free Society, Wm.C. Brown Pub., New York, 1970; Elizabeth Grey's The Story of Journalism, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1969; Leonard W. Levy's Legacy of Supression: Freedom of Speech & Press in Early American History, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1960; Frank L. Mott, American Journalism, A History 1660-1960, pp. 265-265, Macmillan Co., Toronto, 1971; Alexis de Tocqueville's, Democracy In America(1835), Alfred Knopf, New York, 1945.]

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